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The Global Slavery Index estimates that there werepeople living in modern slavery in the United Kingdom UK on any given day inreflecting a prevalence rate of 2. Research conducted by the UK Home Office in estimated that there are between 10, to 13, potential victims of modern slavery in the UK. According to the annual figures provided by the NCA, 5, potential victims of modern slavery were referred through the National Referral Mechanism NRM in of whom 2, 47 percent were female, 2, 52 percent were male and 3 less than 1 percent were transgender. The types of exploitation recorded under the NRM include domestic servitude, labour exploitation, organ harvesting, sexual exploitation, and unknown exploitation. Forty-one percent of all referrals were children under 18 years of age at the time of exploitation.

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We first explain how some natural fluctuation in sex ratio occurs in human populations, and we illustrate this with the example of the effects of war.

This slight excess of male births was first documented in by John Graunt and colleagues for the population of London 4and many studies of human populations have confirmed their finding. In both of these countries, improved health care and conditions for women have led to lower sex ratios Data for Pakistan for showed further improvement, to 6.

Gender is a well-established individual-level correlate of crime, and especially violent crime It is a consistent finding across cultures that an overwhelming percentage of violent crime is perpetrated by young, unmarried, low-status males 50 — In India, a study carried out between and united kingdom young escorts 103 a strong correlation between homicide rates in individual states across the country and the sex ratio in those states, after controlling for potential confounders such as urbanization and poverty The authors concluded that there was a clear link between sex ratio and violence as a whole, not just violence against women as might be assumed when there is a shortage of females.

High-quality health care and accurate vital information registration have meant that differential gender mortality and underreporting have not contributed to abnormal sex ratios The sex ratios began to rise in the mids in cities, and ultrasound was already widely available even in rural areas by The large city of Taegu reported a sex ratio of — inalthough it had been normal in The sex ratio across birth order is well illustrated by data for South Korea during the highest sex ratio years of the late s and early s see Table 2. Many of the outcomes that we have described as consequences, for example increased levels of violence, are likely to be multifactorial in causation and therefore impossible to attribute simply to gender imbalance.

These data show that South Koreans sex-select even in their first pregnancy because there is traditional preference for the first-born to be male 31 and that the tendency to sex-select rises for third and fourth births as parents try to ensure that they produce a son.

The sex ratio at birth and the population sex ratio

In China alone, approximately 1 million excess male births are reported every year Because of the One Child Policy introduced inChina is unique in having a compulsory low-fertility culture, and this is combined with a strong tradition of son preference. Although sex ratio at birth favors males, differential gender mortality favors females 8. Females have greater resistance to disease throughout life and greater overall longevity, so in circumstances where they have the same nutrition and health care as males, females have lower mortalities across all age groups The situation for men is compounded by their greater tendency to engage in risk behaviors and violence, thus increasing their risk of premature mortality By using Western life tables, drawn from gender-neutral countries, the population sex ratio is calculated at between In many countries, however, the sex ratio deviates from these norms because of the tradition of son preference.

However, it is not in dispute that over the next 20 years in large parts of Asia there will be an excess of males. In China, the One Child Policy presents specific challenges to accurate data collection because there may be collusion between parents and authorities to hide births that are not approved within the Policy 3. This son preference is manifest in sex-selective abortion and in discrimination in care practices for girls, both of which lead to higher female mortality.

Measures to reduce sex selection must include strict enforcement of existing legislation, the ensuring of equal rights for women, and public awareness campaigns about the dangers of gender imbalance. The tradition of son preference, however, has distorted these natural sex ratios in large parts of Asia and North Africa.


XX-bearing sperm; changes in the age structure of the population; and higher frequency of intercourse, leading to conception earlier in the menstrual cycle, all of which have been associated with increased sex ratios in other studies 16 — Alternatively, evolutionary explanations argue that the increase represents an adaptive equilibrium after the decimation of males during war 13although critics argue that the increase does not last long enough to compensate for wartime casualties 19 The cause of this alteration in sex ratio at birth during war remains a curiosity.

In the absence of manipulation, both the sex ratio at birth and the population sex ratio are remarkably constant in human populations. Largely as a result of this practice, there are now an estimated 80 million missing females in India and China alone. A of commentators predict that this situation will lead to increased levels of antisocial behavior and violence and will ultimately present a threat to the stability and security of society 3145 — There is some empirical evidence to fear such a scenario.

Inthe sex ratio for fourth births in South Korea was an astoundingwhereas the overall ratio was From the mids, the government launched a public awareness campaign warning of the dangers of such distortion. Figures for this ratio are generally taken from census data and are regarded as more reliable than figures for sex ratio at birth.

In the absence of manipulation, the sex ratio at birth is remarkably consistent across human populations, with — male births for every female births. South Korea was the first country to report very high sex ratios at birth, because the widespread use of sex-selective technology in South Korea preceded that of other Asian countries.

Proposed biological explanations for the observed increase in sex ratio during war include stress to adult males, affecting the viability of XY-bearing vs. A key study of births for the period to in 24 countries in Europe showed a sex ratio of —, with a median of The latter figure is widely used as the baseline for calculating deviations in the sex ratio.

Accurate figures for sex ratio at birth are difficult to obtain in many populations because of inadequacy of vital statistics registration 2.

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Just over half of the human population is male. Small alterations do occur naturally; for example, a small excess of male births has been reported to occur during and after war. In China, young male migrant workers are thought to be responsible for a disproportionate amount of urban crime, especially violent crime.

Sons are preferred because i they united kingdom young escorts 103 a higher wage-earning capacity, especially in agrarian economies 24 ; ii they continue the family line; and iii they are generally recipients of inheritance 25 Girls are often considered an economic burden because of the dowry system; after marriage they typically become members of the husband's family, ceasing to have responsibility for their parents in illness and old age Son preference is manifest prenatally, through sex determination and sex-selective abortion, and postnatally through neglect and abandonment of female children, which le to higher female mortality Since prenatal sex determination became available in the mids it has made a major contribution to imbalances in the sex ratio seen in many Asian countries However, it is the combination of sex-selective technology and a small-family culture that has caused the highest sex ratios 29 When large family size is the norm and access to contraception is limited, son preference has little influence on sex ratio because couples continue bearing children, largely irrespective of the gender of the children Female infanticide, abandonment of newborn girls, and neglect of daughters have been used in such societies to increase the male-to-female ratio in families, especially in situations where poverty has limited the of desired children When the family size norm is moderate and only contraceptive methods are available, couples may consider the sex distribution of their existing children and decide whether or not to use family planning, weighing the need for a son against their desired family size However, when fertility rates are low, by choice or coercion, female births must be prevented to allow for the desired of sons within the family size norm.

Laws forbidding sex-selection technology were more strictly enforced, and there was a widespread and influential media campaign focusing on the anticipated shortage of brides 31 Together, these actions led to a decline in the sex ratio from in to in 1.

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We then demonstrate how the tradition of preference for male offspring has led to huge distortions in the sex ratio in some countries. The sex ratio in children under age 6 rose from in to in 42showing that improved health care and general conditions for females have been offset by increased recourse to sex-selective abortion 2. In most rural areas, if the first child is a girl the couple are allowed a second pregnancy.

Finally, we suggest measures that will help to reduce sex selection and lead, eventually, to normalization of the sex ratio.

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These two terms need to be clearly differentiated. The wider social and political consequences of these distortions are discussed, with particular reference to China, India, and South Korea.

In China, there has been a steady increase in the reported sex ratio at birth from in to inand to in 43increasing to as high as in some rural counties In urban China only one child is allowed, so some urban Chinese make the choice to sex-select with their first pregnancy.

The population sex ratio depends on three factors: the sex ratio at birth, differential mortality rates between the sexes at different ages, and losses and gains through migration 5. Since that time, improved health care and conditions for women have resulted in reductions in female mortality, but these advances have now been offset by a huge increase in the use of sex-selective abortion, which became available in the mids. In particular, births occurring at home and births of unwanted or abandoned infants often go unrecorded.

What is clear is that where sex selection occurs it is strongly influenced by the gender of the preceding child; for second births with one preceding girl the ratio isand for third births with two girls the ratio is In cases where the child was a boy, sex ratios are normal In contrast, in Pakistan and Bangladesh sex-selective abortion is much less acceptable and available.

These analyses were repeated by Hudson and Den Boer 46who showed that the relationship between sex ratio and murder rates at the level of the Indian state persisted through the late s.

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The finding of a small but ificant increase in male births during and after war has been documented in Europe and the U. However, studies of the Balkan Wars 14 and of the Iran—Iraq war 15 did not reproduce these findings. The underlying reasons for this divide are unclear and are not explained by any of the more obvious factors, such as income level, availability of medical resources, variations in economic growth, religion, or differences in female education 2. However, distinct geographical differences in sex ratio have appeared across the country; several states in the north and west have very high population sex ratios.

Over 30 demographic and environmental factors have been studied for their effects on the sex ratio at birth, including family size, parental age, parental occupation, birth order, race, coital rate, hormonal treatments, exposure to environmental toxins, stress, several diseases, and war 6 — 9. A of studies have shown that unequal access to health care is the most important factor 32 This is especially the case in united kingdom young escorts 103 where health care costs have to be borne by the family 34 — Since the mids, female disadvantage in mortality has declined substantially, only to be replaced by a different type of disadvantage: sex-selective abortion The combination of widespread access to noninvasive sex-selective technology ultrasound and the advent of the small-family culture happened to coincide in some Asian countries in the mids and has led to a greatly increased sex ratio at birth 2531 Realization of the potentially disastrous effects of this distortion has led many Asian governments, including those of India and China, to outlaw prenatal sex determination and sex-selective abortion, yet these techniques are still being carried out on a large scale, with virtual impunity 38 The impact of son preference on the population sex ratio can be seen in census data for Across these countries, an estimated 67—92 million females were missing in Three of these countries are of particular interest: South Korea because it has succeeded in reducing the sex ratio very substantially, India because of its marked regional differences in sex ratio, and China with its unique One Child Policy.

In India, because of incomplete birth registration, sex ratios in young children are used as a proxy measure. Postnatally, discrimination against daughters le to neglect of their health care or nutrition, resulting in higher female mortality. These men will remain single and will be unable to have families, in societies where marriage is regarded as virtually universal and social status and acceptance depend, in large part, on being married and creating a new family An additional problem is that many of these men are rural peasants of low socioeconomic class and with limited education So, in many communities today there are growing s of young men in the lower echelons of society who are marginalized because of lack of family prospects and who have little outlet for sexual energy.

So, if the second or subsequent pregnancies are female, either the fetus is aborted or the newborn female child may be abandoned or sometimes simply not registered, allowing the couple to go on to have another child Because of this, the consequences of this male surplus are largely speculative.

Inmales ed for Here, we examine the reasons for this rise and explore its consequences.